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LABORATORY PROCEDURES FOR PLANT CELL LINES
PC/1998/1/7 Appendix 3
Good Microbiological Practice
Each employee of the collection must
be aware of relevant safety aspects before handling biological material.
Each employee has to be aware also of all relevant national regulations
concerning the material to work with.
Each employee should be informed about
these rules to make sure that by his behaviour, by organisational measures
and the use of the suitable equipment a contamination of man and environment
with microbes especially with pathogenic microbes is avoided as far as
Employees in Germany should be informed:
Microbes may contaminate humans via the
respiratory ducts, the stomach, the intestine, the eyes, mucous membranes
and especially after injuries via the skin. The development of an infection
depends on the constitution of the infected person, the dose of infection,
the way of infection and the virulence of the infecting microorganism.
about the contents of the UVV Biotechnologie
about the contents of the BG Chemie Merk-blattes
B 002 Sichere Biotechnologie-Ausstattung und orga-ni-satorische Maßnahmen:
about the contents of Gentechnik-Sicherheitsverordnung,
insbesondere § 9 und Anhang III A. Sicher--heits-maß-nahmen
für den Laborbereich, sowie
about the contents of DIN Fachberichtes
Nr. 7 Verminderung des Infektionsrisikos in der medi-zi-ni-schen Mikro-biologie)
The number of infections that had occurred
in non-medical, microbiological laboratories over the time is unknown.
The major reason is that in most of these laboratories work is carried
out only with non-pathogenic microorganisms. Even in medical laboratories
where work is carried out mostly with potentially pathogenic microorganisms
the number of announced infections is relatively rare 1.
Nevertheless it has to be taken into
account that for most of the strains maintained at DSMZ the dose of injection
is unknown as well as their virulence. The personal constitution of employees
may vary largely and even for each specific employee. It has also be taken
into account that during the work with pure cultures the dose of infection
may be much higher and the way of infection may be different from a naturally
occurring infection (for example by inhaling of highly contaminated aerosols
or via prick with hypodermic needles filled with concentrated bacterial
Therefore (and for reasons which may
be even unknown) all work should be carried out following the «Good
Laboratory Practice Guidelines « listed below:
Laboratory doors and windows should be
kept closed when work is in progress.
Eating, drinking, smoking, storing food
and applying cosmetics is not permitted in the laboratory. Labels must
not be licked. Materials must not be placed in the mouth.
Protective laboratory clothing must be
worn for work in the laboratory.
Pipetting by mouth is not allowed, pipetting
aids should be available.
The use of hypodermic needles and syringes
should be restricted to the work with anaerobic micro-organisms.
All technical procedures should be performed
in a way that minimizes the formation of aerosols and droplets.
After finishing work, and before leaving
the laboratory, hands must be washed. If infectious materials have been
handled, hands should be disinfected.
Working space should be kept clean and
The identity (authenticity) of the
biological material used should be checked in regularly intervals.
Before starting work with biological materials,
employees should be instructed on safety aspects. The instruction should
be repeated annually.
Employees untrained in microbiology have
to be instructed extensively. They should be carefully guided and supervised.
There should be an arthropod and rodent
For handling risk group 2 organisms
the following guidelines should be also observed:
(In Germany relevant guidelines the preventive
medical Checkups should follow are: Grundsätze G 24 "Hauterkrankungen"
and G 42 "Infektionskrankheiten" issued by the «Berufsgenossenschaft»)
Work surfaces must be decontaminated at
the end of the working day.
Protective laboratory clothing should
not be worn in non-laboratory areas. It should not be stored in the same
lockers or cupboards as street clothing.
All contaminated materials must be decontaminated
before cleaning for reuse. All infected waste must be safely collected
and decontaminated before disposal.
After any spill of potentially dangerous
material the contaminated area should be closed and must be decontaminated.
During the work with microorganisms or
viruses pathogenic for man, where protection by vaccination is possible
the employees should be vaccinated if possible and the results of the vaccination
should be controlled.
The health status and the personal constitution
of all employees have to be controlled be a preventive medical checkup
at the start of the work and by annually repeated preventive medical checkups.
Additional safety measures may be necessary
depending on the risk potential:
The handling of genetically modified organisms
(GMO), viruses and subviral agents have to be carried out according to
national and international law (For Germany the guidelines: Grundsatz G
43 "Biotechnologie" and the «Gentechnikgesetz» have to be followed).
Written guidelines about «Fist Aid»
in the case of accidents with pathogenic microorganisms have to be available
in every laboratory. All accidents have to be announced to the employer.
The use of biology safety cabinets (class
I, II or III).
Only persons who have been advised of
the potential hazard and who meet specific entry requirements may be allowed
to enter certain laboratory working areas.
Use of special protective clothing or
Disinfection of all contaminated materials
before removing these from the working place.
Reduction of microorganisms in the exhaust
air (e.G. HEPA filters).--
Pregnant women or a breast-feeding mothers
may not work with microorganisms or agents pathogenic for humans.
1) P.R. Hunter, Occupational infections
of workers in medical laboratories. Microbiology Europe, September/ October
1993, p. 8-12
Guidelines prepared for CABRI by
DSMZ, 20 Jan. 1998; updated February 2000
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